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What is an optometrist?

A dark-haired woman calmly looks toward the ceiling so her optometrist can examine her eyes.

An optometrist is an eye care professional who has earned a Doctor of Optometry (OD) degree. Optometrists are eye doctors who provide eye exams and medical eye care but do not perform eye surgery.


To become a licensed optometrist in the United States, you must attend a four-year curriculum of study and clinical experience at an accredited school or college of optometry.

Generally, admission to optometry school is competitive and requires:

  • A four-year degree from a college or university

  • An acceptable score on an optometry college admissions test

  • An application process that requires personal references and an interview

Some optometrists (ODs) also choose to complete a residency in a specific area of practice.

As a comparison, the eight-year education requirement to become an optometrist — a college degree, followed by four years of post-graduate professional school — is similar to that required to become a dentist.

READ MORE about the profession of optometry and education requirements to become an optometrist.


Following their educational curriculum, optometrists must pass national and state board exams before they can obtain a license to practice optometry.


After graduating from optometry school and passing licensure exams, an optometrist typically:

  • Performs comprehensive eye exams

  • Diagnoses, treats and manages vision problems

  • Diagnoses, treats, and manages eye infections and other common eye health problems

  • Prescribes eyeglasses and contact lenses

  • Performs contact lens fittings and follow-up exams

State law determines the permitted scope of services an optometrist can provide.

Some optometrists may dedicate their practice to a specific type of patient or eye care. For example, a pediatric optometrist specializes in children’s vision and vision therapy. Others may specialize in sports vision or providing care for people with visual disabilities (low vision).

Limits of care

With a few exceptions, optometrists are not licensed to perform eye surgery in the United States. Referral to an ophthalmologist is typically required if eye surgery is needed.

When to see an optometrist

Optometrists provide most of the routine eye exams performed in the U.S. and write the majority of eyeglass prescriptions and contact lens prescriptions.

Generally, most optometrists recommend an annual eye exam — especially for chi

ldren, contact lens wearers and adults over age 60.

If you notice a sudden or significant change in your vision, seek care from an eye doctor (optometrist or ophthalmologist) immediately.

Cost of exams

Generally, the cost of services provided by both optometrists (ODs) and ophthalmologists (MDs) is at least partially covered by vision insurance or medical insurance.

If you don’t have insurance, routine eye exams provided by an optometrist often cost less than eye exams provided by an ophthalmologist.

Whichever eye doctor you choose, ask about costs and possible insurance coverage before you schedule your exam.

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