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Ocular Migraines and Visual Migraines

An ocular migraine is a rare condition characterized by temporary vision loss or even temporary blindness in one eye. Ocular migraines are thought to be caused by reduced blood flow or spasms of blood vessels in the retina or behind the eye.

In an ocular migraine, vision in the affected eye generally returns to normal within an hour. Ocular migraines can be painless or they can occur along with (or following) a migraine headache.

Unfortunately, the term "ocular migraine" often is used to describe a much more common (and harmless) condition — called a visual migraine or migraine aura — that has similar symptoms. And to make things even more confusing, ocular migraines and visual migraines have several other names that often are used to describe them.

Here's the lowdown on the terms (in alphabetical order) used to describe conditions that cause temporary vision disturbances:

  • Eye migraine. This is another term used to describe an ocular migraine.
  • Migraine aura. A common, harmless condition characterized by temporary visual disturbances that generally disappear within 30 minutes. Unlike ocular migraines, a migraine aura (visual migraine) typically affects both eyes.
  • Migraine with aura. Used to describe a migraine headache that is accompanied by visual disturbances. Generally, the vision disturbances occur up to 30 minutes before the headache pain begins. (Generally, this term is used interchangeably with visual migraine and migraine aura.)
  • Ophthalmic migraine. Same as ocular migraine.
  • Optical migraine. Same as ocular migraine.
  • Retinal migraine. Same as ocular migraine.
  • Visual migraine. Same as migraine aura.

For the remainder of this article, we'll compare ocular migraines (a.k.a. eye migraine, ophthalmic migraine, optical migraine, and retinal migraine) with visual migraines (a.k.a. migraine aura and migraine with aura).

FIND A DOCTOR: Don't take chances. If you experience vision disturbances, visit an eye doctor near you to determine what's causing them.

Ocular migraine and visual migraine symptoms

Ocular migraine symptoms generally include a small blind spot that affects your central vision in one eye. This blind spot gets larger, making it impossible for you to drive safely or read with the affected eye. In some cases, the entire visual field of one eye may be affected. Generally, the episode lasts less than an hour.

Visual migraine symptoms can vary, and may include:

Visual migraines often appear suddenly and may create the sensation of looking through a cracked window. The visual migraine aura usually moves across your field of view and disappears within 30 minutes. [Enlarge]
  1. A flickering blind spot (called a scintillating scotoma) in the center or near the center of your field of view
  2. A wavy or zigzag ring of colored light surrounding a central blind spot
  3. A blind spot that slowly migrates across your visual field

The symptoms of a visual migraine typically affect both eyes and last 30 minutes or less. A migraine headache may occur shortly after the symptoms of a visual migraine subside (migraine with aura) or no headache may occur.

If you're experiencing a blind spot or other visual disturbance and you're not sure if it's an ocular migraine or a visual migraine, cover one eye at a time. If the visual disturbance is occuring in just one eye, it's likely that it's an ocular migraine. If it affects both eyes, it's probably a visual migraine.

But don't take chances. If you suddenly experience any sort of blind spot in your field of vision, call or visit an eye doctor near you immediately to determine if it's harmless (in other words, a visual migraine) or it's possibly a sign of something more serious, such as a retinal detachment or even an eye stroke.

What causes ocular and visual migraines?

Ocular migraines are believed to have the same causes as migraine headaches.

Migraine headaches have a genetic basis, and some studies say up to 70 percent of people who suffer from the disorder have a family history of migraine headaches.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), migraine headaches appear to be triggered by activation of a mechanism deep in the brain, which releases inflammatory substances around nerves and blood vessels in the head and brain. And imaging studies have revealed changes in blood flow to the brain during ocular migraines and migraine auras. But why this happens and what brings about the spontaneous resolution of ocular migraines and visual migraines remain unknown.

Common migraine "triggers" that can cause a susceptible person to have a migraine attack (including ocular and visual migraines) include certain foods, such as aged cheeses, caffeinated drinks, red wine, smoked meats, and chocolate.

Food additives, such as monosodium glutamate (MSG), and artificial sweeteners also can trigger migraines in some individuals.

Other potential migraine triggers include cigarette smoke, perfumes and other strong odors, glaring or flickering lights, lack of sleep and emotional stress.

Treatment and prevention

As already noted, visual disturbances caused by ocular migraines and visual migraines typically disappear within an hour or less without treatment.

If you are driving or performing other tasks that require good vision when an ocular migraine or visual migraine occurs, stop what you are doing and relax until your vision returns to normal. (If you're driving, pull off to the side of the road as soon as you can safely do so, and wait for the vision disturbances to completely pass.)

If you experience visual disturbances that are accompanied by a migraine headache, see your family physician or a neurologist for evaluation of your migraine episodes.

Your doctor can advise you of the latest medicines for treating migraines, including medicines designed to prevent future attacks. People who experience migraine headaches that last longer than 24 hours or who have more than two migraines per month generally are good candidates for preventive medical treatment.

It's also a good idea to keep a journal of your diet and activities just prior to your ocular migraine or migraine aura episodes to see if you can identify possible triggers that you can avoid in the future.

If your ocular migraines or migraine auras (visual migraines) appear to be stress-related, you might be able to reduce the frequency of your migraine attacks without medicine by simply:

  • Eating healthful meals on a regular basis
  • Avoiding common migraine triggers
  • Getting plenty of sleep
  • Trying stress-busters such as yoga and massage.

FIND A DOCTOR: Don't take chances. If you experience vision disturbances, visit an eye doctor near you to determine what's causing them >

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Page updated December 2018