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Is there a way to “fix” short-sightedness?

Girl wearing glasses

Currently, there is no cure for myopia (short-sightedness). Blurry vision caused by myopia can be corrected, and myopia progression can be slowed, leading optoemtrists refer to these methods as myopia management, not as treatment or cures. 

Myopia is not an eye disease, it's a refractive error that is often caused by the eyeball growing too long during childhood. Myopia can also develop if the cornea and/or the lens of the eye are too curved. In rare cases, myopia can occur if the lens is too close to the cornea. 

Any of these factors can cause the light entering the eye to focus in front of the retina instead of directly on it. This makes distant objects look blurry. 

Myopia correction

There are proven methods that can be prescribed by an optometrist to correct myopia. Correction refers to corrective lenses and refractive surgery. Corrective lenses can provide clearer vision, but they only work while a person is wearing them. They do not cure the causes of myopia.

Prescription glasses and contact lenses can also relieve some of the symptoms related to short-sightedness, including: 

Once myopia has stabilised (usually by the age of 24), refractive surgery may be an option. LASIK and other types of laser eye surgery can be effective long-term corrections for myopia. However, even surgery is not a cure for the causes of myopia. In some cases, some amount of myopia can return even after surgery.

Myopia control

There are also proven methods to help slow or halt the progression of myopia. These methods are called myopia control. Myopia control is best achieved during early childhood using options such as:

  • Myopia control glasses

  • Myopia control contact lenses

  • Atropine eye drops

  • Lifestyle changes (increased time outdoors and decreased prolonged near work)

Myopia control is necessary because myopia can progress to high myopia, which can result in potentially blinding complications, including: 

Myopia control glasses and contact lenses are not the same as standard prescription lenses. They are special multifocus lenses that can slow the eye growth that leads to myopia.

These lenses have shown success in slowing myopia progression. And newer, even more effective designs are constantly being developed. Examples of these designs include: 

Orthokeratology (also called ortho-k) has also been successful in myopia management and control. Orthokeratology lenses reshape the cornea during sleep, temporarily correcting myopia. Ortho-k is not a cure for myopia, the contact lenses must be worn regularly at night, or the myopia and blurry vision will return.

Atropine eye drops are used in low doses for myopia control. Scientists do not fully understand how they work, but they show the greatest success in slowing the eye growth related to myopia. 

Lifestyle factors also play a part in myopia control. Keeping good visual habits is essential to reducing the risk of developing myopia. Leading optometrists recommend spending at least 90 minutes outdoors per day. They also recommend taking frequent breaks during prolonged near work activities.

If you want to learn more about myopia correction and control, schedule an eye exam with an optoemtrist near you.

Beth Longware Duff also contributed to this article.

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