Macular Degeneration News
Rejuvenating "Cholesterol Eaters" in the Eyes
May Slow AMD Vision Loss
May 2013 Just as cholesterol accumulates in blood vessels, it can also build up in the eyes, in tiny yellowish deposits called drusen. When drusen become large, typically they indicate age-related macular degeneration (AMD).
It is unclear whether cholesterol buildup triggers AMD. But one theory says that large immune cells called macrophages which normally "eat" cholesterol and also limit the rampant new blood vessel growth that occurs with AMD become less efficient with age.
And a new study suggests that they become less able to process cholesterol as they normally would. Instead, the macrophages become inflamed and then actually encourage blood vessel growth.
An eye affected by neovascular AMD, filled with abnormal blood vessels and yellow deposits called drusen. The white spot at the right is where the optic nerve leaves the eye. (Image: National Eye Institute)
The study included tests in cell culture as well as in mice. By treating macrophages with an LXR agonist, which turned on a particular gene within those cells, the scientists rejuvenated the macrophages so they were effective once more at stopping abnormal blood vessel growth.
"If we could prevent the blood vessels from growing, it would be better than trying to eliminate them after the fact," said study leader Rajendra Apte, MD, PhD, in a National Eye Institute press release. "LXR agonists or other drugs to help macrophages clear away cholesterol might help."
A report of the study appeared online in April in Cell Metabolism.
FDA Approves Vision-Monitoring System for Handheld Devices, for People with Retinal Diseases
April 2013 Soon, people with macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy or other retinal diseases will be able to track their vision at home, to aid their eye doctor's efforts in managing their eye disease.
The system, called myVisionTrack, lets people assess their vision function on an iPhone or other handheld device with a patented shape discrimination test.
The device stores the test results and automatically contacts a health care provider if results indicate that visual function seems to be deteriorating.
myVisionTrack will be available only by prescription from a health care provider. See our earlier news item for more details.
Study Finds Aspirin Use Linked to Increased Risk of AMD
January 2013 A study has found that regularly taking aspirin increases the risk of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD).
The study, led by Barbara E. K. Klein, MD, MPH, of the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, analyzed data from the Beaver Dam Eye Study, a longitudinal population-based study of age-related eye diseases conducted in Wisconsin.
Nearly 5,000 people participated at the baseline examination, ranging in age from 43 to 86. Examinations were performed every five years over 20 years, and participants were asked if they had regularly used aspirin at least twice a week for more than three months. The average duration of follow-up was 14.8 years.
Over the course of the study, there were 512 cases of early AMD and 117 cases of late-stage AMD.
The researchers found that regular aspirin use 10 years before the retinal examination was associated with late AMD (1.8 percent for aspirin users and 1.0 percent for non-users).
One subtype of late AMD, neovascular AMD, had a significant association with aspirin use: 1.4 percent of aspirin users had neovascular AMD compared with 0.6 percent for non-users.
There was no significant association for early AMD or geographic atrophy, the other subtype of late AMD.
"Our findings are consistent with a small but statistically significant association between regular aspirin use and incidence of neovascular AMD," the research authors concluded.
Previous studies of aspirin use and AMD have yielded inconsistent results. In fact, the results of the Klein et al. study contradict the recent findings of Emily Y. Chew, MD, deputy director of the Division of Epidemiology and Clinical Applications, National Eye Institute.
Speaking at the 2012 annual meeting of the American Academy of Ophthalmology in November, Dr. Chew presented data from AREDS (Age-Related Eye Disease Study) and the follow-up study, AREDS2, which found that aspirin use did not increase the risk of developing AMD.
However, if further studies confirm the Beaver Dam Eye Study findings led by Dr. Klein, developing ways to slow the effect, especially for people who use aspirin to help prevent cardiovascular disease, will be of particular importance in the study and treatment of neovascular AMD.
The Klein et al. study was published in the Journal of the American Medical Association in December 2012.
Chemical That Helps Blind Mice See Light May Help
People With Vision Loss
BERKELEY, Calif., August 2012 When injected into the eyes of genetically blind mice, a chemical called AAQ can make cells in the retina sensitive to light, enabling vision. This is an amazing finding of recent research at the University of California, Berkeley, in collaboration with other groups.
During the experiment, the previously blind mice's pupils contracted in bright light, and they displayed the light avoidance typical of mice that can detect light.
Injecting the AAQ molecule into the eye may have several advantages over other, more permanent sight-restoring methods, such as implantation of light-sensitive chips and use of gene therapies or stem cell treatments.
The chemical does wear off over time, so regular injections would be required. But the dosage could be altered, it could be used in combination with other measures and it could be discontinued if desired.
People who could benefit from AAQ include those with retinal diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration.
New Statistics Show Big Increase in Macular Degeneration
in the United States
CHICAGO, June 2012 Since 2000, the number of people age 50 and older with late age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has climbed by 25 percent, to 2,069,403.
This startling increase was documented in "Vision Problems in the U.S.," a report released by Prevent Blindness America and the National Eye Institute and compiled by researchers from Johns Hopkins University.
Download these new statistics on age-related macular degeneration, myopia, cataracts, glaucoma and other vision problems.
The report showed large increases in other vision conditions, too. Diabetic retinopathy, for example, has risen a whopping 89 percent in people aged 40 and older. For open-angle glaucoma and cataracts, the increases were 22 percent and 19 percent. And 23 percent more people 40 and older are blind or visually impaired.
A new searchable database lets you research the new statistics on AMD, cataracts, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, myopia, hyperopia, blindness and vision impairment. You can search by state, age, gender and race; and you can obtain comparisons across vision problems.
Researchers are also looking at the costs of these vision problems to our health care system and our society. A report of their economic impact will be available soon.
Oscar-Winning Actress Develops Age-Related Eye Disease
Dame Judi Dench at the Berlin premiere of "Notes On A Scandal" in 2007. (Image: Pascal Le Segretain)
LONDON, February 2012 Dame Judi Dench has revealed that she has age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and has lost quite a bit of her eyesight.
In an interview published in the London newspaper The Mirror, she said she can no longer read scripts and must have a friend or relative read them to her.
She does not plan to retire anytime soon, however.
According to the interview, she has the wet form of AMD in one eye and the dry form in the other.
She has had injection treatments and hopes they are working to stop the progression of the disease.
Dame Judi said that bright light helps her to see better, and she also plans to buy a digital book reader so she can enlarge the type when reading.
She added that her mother had suffered from AMD as well.
Please click here for more macular degeneration news from 2011.
[Page updated May 10, 2013]
For more Eye Conditions and Diseases articles, please visit this section's home page or use the search box below.