Sport Sunglasses: Controlling
Light, Enhancing Performance
Sports sunglasses could give an edge to athletes at all levels, including amateur "weekend warriors" who always are looking for ways to improve their performance in the sports they love.
But in their rush to try the latest and greatest gear, such as new tennis racquets or shoes, many sports enthusiasts overlook a key factor in optimizing their sports performance their vision.
Cannondale Pro Cycling team member Peter Sagan, during the 2012 Tour de France. The team wore Noyz Racing Pro sunglasses by Rudy Project and will do so again throughout 2013.
Sport Sunglasses Manage Light for Better Performance
Vision is, of course, about how we process light to create the images we see.
All light, including outdoor sunlight, is composed of a variety of electromagnetic rays of different colors, determined by their wavelengths. Rays of violet, blue, green, yellow, orange and red light each have a specific wavelength, depending on color. When combined, these colored rays create white light.
When transmittance of certain wavelengths into the eye is selectively reduced, tinted performance sunglasses can diminish glare and enhance contrast sensitivity. With this ability to see with greater speed, accuracy, clarity and comfort, the athlete may have a key advantage over competitors.
This extra edge of better vision with sports sunglasses can manifest itself in different ways, depending on the sport. In golf, for example, tinted lenses can enhance contrast between light and dark patterns of the grass on greens, enabling you to "read" greens better for more accurate putting.
- In tennis, softball and baseball, tinted lenses can help you see the rotation of the ball more clearly so you can make better contact with your racquet or bat.
- For biking, sunglasses with the appropriate lenses may help you see better down the road or trail for a safer ride, especially when traveling downhill at high speeds.
Nike is one company committed to developing a wide variety of sport sunglasses to help athletes at every level improve their game, says Al Reichow, OD, director of research development for Nike Sensory Sports Training (SST).
"Vision is the guiding sense to most of human performance," Reichow said in the June 2008 issue of 20/20 magazine.
How To Choose a Sunglass Tint
To some degree, selecting a tint is a matter of personal preference. However, certain tints offer advantages for specific visual tasks and environments.
If 100 percent accuracy in color perception is key, a neutral gray tint is the best choice.
But for most athletes, contrast enhancement is the most desired feature for activities such as viewing a ball against the sky, a fish under the water, upcoming moguls on a ski slope or for a variety of other sports-specific tasks. To enhance contrast, brown and copper-colored tints are often best.
Depending on lighting conditions, yellow (for low-light and overcast conditions), amber, orange and red tints also are good choices for contrast enhancement.
For a list of lens colors and potential uses, see our Sunglasses Lens Tint Guide.
Lens Tints and UV Protection
If you're into sports, you probably spend more time in the sun than the average person. For this reason, make sure your sunglasses offer 100 percent UV protection. Lifelong overexposure to ultraviolet (UV) rays has been linked to the development of cataracts later in life.
The amount of UV protection offered by sunglass lenses is determined by the lens material and coatings or additives applied to the lens.
Therefore, the color and darkness of a sunglass tint are not reliable indicators of its ability to shield your eyes from ultraviolet (UV) radiation. It's possible for a light yellow lens to offer 100 percent UV protection and for a dark gray lens, depending on its quality, to offer little or no protection.
A good choice for sports sunglasses is polycarbonate lenses. These lenses are lightweight and shatter-resistant, and they block 100 percent of the sun's harmful UV rays without extra additives or coatings.
Recent research also suggests it's a good idea to wear sunglasses that block high energy visible (HEV) radiation from the sun sometimes called "blue light" in addition to UV rays. Some researchers believe long-term exposure to HEV light may contribute to macular degeneration and other eye problems.
Many brands of "blue-blocker" sunglasses are on the market. One particularly effective version includes a synthetic form of melanin, which is a natural light-absorbing pigment present in our skin and in the retinas of our eyes.
Your eye doctor can help you choose sports sunglasses that block both 100 percent UV and potentially damaging HEV light.
Supercharge Tints With Other Lens Features
Although tints alone can improve your sports vision significantly by changing the quantity and quality of light entering the eye, you also may want to consider adding these performance-enhancing features to your sports sunglasses:
Mirror coatings in sports sunglasses can increase eye comfort in highly reflective environments.
- Photochromic lenses. These tints lighten and darken automatically in changing light conditions, making them very beneficial for outdoor activities lasting several hours. As weather conditions change or the sun begins to set, photochromic lenses will adjust to allow the optimum amount of light to enter your eyes for good vision.
- Polarized sunglasses. These lenses contain a special filter that selectively blocks light reflecting from horizontal surfaces, eliminating "hot spots" of glare. Polarized lenses are especially helpful in blocking glare from light reflecting off water, sand, snow and concrete.
- Anti-reflective coating. Applying an AR coating to the back surface of your sports sunglass lenses will eliminate glare from sunlight reflecting off this surface when the sun is behind you. To reduce the likelihood of this even further, choose a wrap-style frame design so your lenses fit closer to your face.
- Mirror coatings. For very bright conditions, such as hiking, skiing or snowshoeing at high altitudes, consider adding a mirror coating to the front surface of your sports sunglass lenses. These coatings can block an additional 10 percent to 60 percent of visible light for greater comfort in highly reflective full-sun environments.
Pro Golfers Demonstrate Advantages of Sport Sunglasses
Australian-born professional golfer Robert Allenby, one of the first pros on the PGA tour to wear sport sunglasses during tournament play, has said that he prefers polarized copper-colored lenses with a 50 percent transmittance rating for golfing.
These Adidas Adilibria Shield S sunglasses for women have lenses designed especially for golf.
"Polarized lenses help take glare and shine off the green so I can see the line better . . . The color helps me see the definition of the grass and covers all climates and light scenarios," Allenby said in the February 2008 issue of Eyecare Business magazine.
Allenby mentioned that wearing sunglasses has helped him perform better on the links by relieving the need to squint, which keeps him more relaxed.
Following Allenby's lead, many young players on the PGA tour are starting to wear sunglasses during tournament play, including Zach Johnson, winner of the 2007 Masters Tournament.
Also, Annika Sorenstam, perhaps the best woman golfer to play the game, with 72 career LPGA victories, has worn sports sunglasses during most of her tour wins.
How Many Pairs of Sport Sunglasses Do You Need?
Typically, you will be best served if you have at least two different pairs of sport sunglasses for different lighting conditions.
A yellow or amber color may be best for overcast conditions, while a medium or dark brown lens may work better for sunny days. Or you may prefer different tint colors for different activities.
Some sports eyewear companies offer sunglasses with interchangeable lenses in different colors for greater versatility. Ask an optician for details.
Before you consider buying another $500 titanium driver, visit your eye doctor or an optical shop instead. A pair or two of high quality sports sunglasses may do more for your game than another expensive club in your bag!
About the Author: Gary Heiting, OD, is senior editor of AllAboutVision.com. Dr. Heiting has more than 25 years of experience as an eye care provider, health educator and consultant to the eyewear industry. His special interests include contact lenses, nutrition and preventive vision care. Connect with Dr. Heiting via Google+.
[Page updated January 2013]
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